Resilience: The Role of Energy Storage in Meeting Vermont’s Energy Goals
As Vermont continues to electrify heating and transportation, the amount of energy storage will have to grow substantially to meet the state's renewable energy and decarbonization goals. Weatherizing homes continues to be the most cost-effective way to meet customer energy needs and reduce impacts on the grid, but batteries and other energy storage technology will need to be deployed on a large scale to stabilize the grid and meet demand when renewables like solar and wind are intermittent. This paper identifies unique thermal energy storage systems (like biomass, electric water heaters and geothermal heating applications) suitable for the state, as well as mechanical energy storage opportunities (like flywheels, pumped water, and compressed or liquified air) that are feasible in Vermont. All forms of energy storage need to work in concert to meet the needs of the grid, with the added benefit of lower electricity rates and improved energy grid reliability. Ultimately, this paper finds Vermont needs to work with its partners in the regional energy grid to implement a comprehensive plan for short- and long-duration energy storage.